Sperm donation represents a variant of artificial insemination using sperm from an anonymous donor. This solution is regarded as particularly suitable for men who are unable for various reasons to produce healthy sperm. Sperm donation is considered to be one of the very common and successful methods of infertility treatment. In the Czech Republic, donation of reproductive cells is governed by legislation based on EU Directives 2004/23/EC and 2006/17/EC, which are binding for all Member States. This consists of Act No. 296/2008 Coll. on Safeguarding the Quality and Safety of Human Cells, and Decree No. 422/2008 Coll., which are more stringent even than their European equivalents.
Under the current, valid laws of the Czech Republic, the donation of embryonic cells is voluntary and anonymous for both the donor and the recipient, as well as any children conceived using this method. The clinic is required to keep the medical records of female and male donors for 30 years and is subject to periodic inspections by government authorities (State Institute for Drug Control, Ministry of Health).
Owing to the fact that cryopreservation does not affect the quality of sperm, IVF Cube clinic manages an extensive databank of frozen sperm from donors. In most cases, the treatment cycle may be initiated immediately after registration. Selection of the donor is conducted by a consultant based on a questionnaire completed by the couple in treatment, so as to maximise the compatibility of phenotypic parameters. For non-European recipients seeking a donor of matching ethnicity, the search for a suitable donor may extend the waiting period.
Semen donors are mostly university students. They are completely healthy, their spermiogram corresponds to above-standard values, they have no hereditary diseases in their family history, and they undergo regular genetic examinations required by law (karyotyping and exclusion of gene mutations for cystic fibrosis), as well as repeated testing to eliminate sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV, HBsAg, HCV, chlamydia, syphilis). Sperm donation does not represent a source of financial compensation for the donor; the donor is only entitled to reimbursement of expenses incurred during donation.